Tuesday, December 23, 2008

The Great Gatsby (Book Review)

The Great Gatsby is the remarkable novel of Fitzegerald. He got the popularity after the publication of “The Great Gatsby.” Different people may interprete The Great Gatsby in different levels. The novel dominantly presents the destruction of American Dream.

The Great Gatsby is based on American materialistic fiction. It shows the contemporary society of America after 2nd World war where people were fully devoted to earn money to fulfill the interest and to get prosperity and happiness. They even didn’t care about their love. The novel combines symbolism with psychological realism. It gives the real picture of new American society where people have their materialistic identity. It presents the contemporary American world where the old boundaries were broken and new values were started. The novel is very significant to present the modern materialistic world.

Daisy Buchanan is the most important female character in the novel who is very sophisticated. She is absolutely influenced by materialistic values and forgets her humanity. She fell in love with Jay Gatsby. They intended to marry but Gatsby has to go Overseas and she get married with Tom Buchanan although he was old man she doesn’t care what’s love or she doesn’t know the real meaning of love. She betrays her pure lover i.e Gatsby. She is a very selfish person , her selfishness is clearly visible in everything that she does.
The most important symbol used in the novel is "The Valley of Ashes." The Valley of Ashes symbolizes the destruction of the human civilization and humanity. The Valley of Ashes is the place which is civilized ,advanced and industrialized but everything in the valley is covered with ashes.The outer environment of the place is polluted because of the industrialization.
This novel talks about the selfish nature of human being. How mean and selfish one can be to fulfill his/her desire and forget about humanity. It also focuses how harsh and hard one’s heart can be which can’t be melted even by one’s true love. It talks about the power of money and human beings being slave infront of money.

Historical Development Of Mass Media In Nepal

The modern history of mass communication in Nepal starts after binging a printing press in 1851A.D(1908 B.S) from Britain by Janga Bahabur Rana which was known as Giddhe Chhapakhana. After the arrival of press the era of print media started. It was the first press machine entered in Nepal. After some years another press was established which was called “Manoranjana Press”. In thee years Nepali first Muluki Ain was published from this press. It took three years to print 1038 pages book of Muluki Ain.

The first magazine in Nepali language was “Gorkha Bharat Jivan” published from Benaras, India. In 1898 A.D Sudhasagar was the first Press Publication from Nepal which was 2nd magazine in Nepali language. Sudhasagar was the only paper published in Nepal Before Gorkhapatra. But there were numbers of magazines and newspapers in Nepali language published from India. We can study the historical development of mass media in Nepal by dividing it in some time intervals. The widely used division is as follows:

The Rana would not permit people to publish any newspapers. It became possible to publish newspaper because of Dev Sumsher’s liberal policy. After 2 years and 10 months of Sudhasagar publication Gorkhapatra came into light i.e in 1901. It was the first newspaper second press publication in Nepal and press publication in Nepali language . In 2000 B.S Gorkhapatra became twice a week. In 2003 B.S Gorkhapatra became thrice a week. Rana didn’t permit to publish the name of the editor of Gorkhapatra till 1934 A.D.
Another literary magazine Sharada, was published in 1934 A.D. Telephone service in Nepal was started in 1913 A.D. After producing 500 kilo watt electricity in 1911 A.D Nepal entered to the era of electric press.

1951-1961(Democracy Period)
In the year 1951A.D, Nepal entered to democratic multiparty system and a new era of Nepali journalism emerged. Within 24 hours of the announcement of the democracy, “Awaj” the first daily newspaper of Nepal published in 2007 Falgun 8th from Kathmandu. Awaj survived only for 2 years. In 2011 Bhadra 24th Samaj Daily, the second daily newspaper published from Kathmandu. Journalism in different languages English, Hindi, Newari, Maithili, etc appeared.

The fomal establishment of Radio broadcasting was done after the establishment of democracy i.e 20th Chaitra 2007 B.S. There were two private news agencies Nepal Sambad Samitee and Sagarmatha Sambad Samitee which was merged into one government news agency Rastriya Samachar Samitee in 2018 Falgun 7.

1961-1990(Panchayat Period)
King Mahendra overthrew the elected government headed by B.P Koirala
and established Panchayat system. It was autocratic, anything promoting multiparty system especially the Nepali Congress was strictly prohibited.
Journalists had faced a number of problems, number of them were kidnapped, threatened and even shot dead. Thus it is known as dark period. Panchayat period can be defined as “era of struggle”
However there were remarkable infrastructure development. Gorkhapatra was made daily. They also published Rising Nepal, Madhuparba.
Beginning of film was done during Panchayat. A documentary of 42nd birthday of King Mahendra was first film made from Nepal. First featured film – Aama,1965 A.D(2022 B.S). The first film in Nepali language made from India in 1950 was Satya Harishchandra.
Radio Nepal got true shape of national broadcasting service during Panchayat. Film corporation was established. Advertising agencies also grew.
Thus Panchayat can be defined as “era of struggle for press freedom and infrastructure development in Nepalese media.”

1990 to onwards
After the restoration of democracy constitution of the kingdom of Nepal 2047 guaranteed Press freedom. Favourable environment for professional journalism appeared, huge investments were started from private sector. Kantipur publication was established with more than Rs 30 million (3 crore).It published Kantipur and The Kathmandu Post in 2049 Falgun 7th which were the first broadsheet national dailies from private sector. New wave of F.M broadcasting from non-government and private sector is started. Some private channels are Channel Nepal, Image Metro,Kantipur Television etc. In 2061 Bhadra Kantipur, Channel Nepal and Space Time were vandalized by unknown groups of people, which can be taken as black day in Nepalese media.

Principles Of The Journalism

Journalism is a special branch of mass communication and is playing vital role in modern society. Journalism means the communication of news that is important or interesting or both through written words, sounds or picture using mass media. Journalism is that part of social activity which is concerned with the dissemination of news and views about the society. Experts view journalism as a highly rewarding career with challenges. Journalists go where others can’t. Journalism as a profession is done based on its own principles. These are directives that journalists have developed through their practice. The main function of journalism is to bring light to the people what its members feels and think. A journalist who misuses his power for any selfish or unworthy purpose is faithless to high trust. There are certain principles of journalism which every journalist is supposed to observe. They are as follows:-
Journalist should be responsible for their nation and society. A journalist who uses his power for any selfish or otherwise unworthy purpose is faithless to a high trust.
2)Freedom of the press:
Freedom of the press is to be guarded as a vital right of mankind. It is unquestionable right to discuss whatever is not explicitly forbidden by law, including the wisdom of any restrictive statute.
Journalist should be independent in writing news from private sources, both in form and substance. They shouldn’t copy from other.
4)Sincerity, truthfulness and Accuracy:
Any newspaper can be truthful by every consideration of good faith. The newspaper contents must be accurate. Non-factual matters shouldn’t be published. Headlines should be fully warranted by the contents of the articles.
News reports should be free from opinion of any kind. The emphasis should be given to spread impartial news.
It should not invade private rights or feelings without sure warrant of public right as distinguished from public curiosity.

Decency is also one of the most important principles of modern journalism. Journalists must deserve their respect in the society. They should work so faithfully that the society regards them.

Mass Media System In Afghanistan


Afghanistan is a barren, mostly mountainous country of about 647,500 sq. kilometers (250,000 square miles). It is approximately the size of Texas. Kabul is the capital city of Afghanistan. It is an Islamic republic. It is one of the world’s poorest and least developed countries. Its economy is not industrialized. There is practically no infrastructure, road, power, communication etc. There is still barter in many sectors. It is a tradition system mixed with Muslim religious principle. People are contended with what they have and do not have much exposure to the external world.

Afghanistan’s population is to be estimated 31,056,997, which is characterized by high growth, low quality of life, and an unusual settlement pattern brought on by conflict and drought. The majority of the people (about 60 percent) live in rural areas, about 30 percent live in cities, and 10 percent live a nomadic lifestyle. These percentages are rough estimates, however, because the ongoing civil war and a succession of poor growing seasons have forced over 3 million Afghanis to become refugees Afghanistan is a complex mosaic of ethno linguistic groups. As of 1979, 99.7 percent of the Afghan population was of the Muslim faith, and the remainder was largely Hindu.

The political system of Afghanistan has seen a sea change over the past few decades. The land has long been witness to historic events and wars that has truly transformed the prevalent political conditions of the country. In recent years the political scenario of Afghanistan has long been predominated by efforts of invasion by the United States and the United Kingdom and establishes a stabilized government.
Color television broadcasting began in 1978. The Taliban banned television and closed the station in 1996. Taliban religious police smashed privately owned television sets and strung up videocassettes in trees in a form of symbolic execution by hanging. Anyone found harboring a television set was subject to punishments of flogging and a six-month incarceration.
In the northeast, however, Badakhshan Television broadcast news and old movies for three hours every evening. Financed by the Northern Alliance, the station's audience was limited to around 5,000 viewers (among 100,000 residents in Faizabad without electricity).

The development of television in Afghanistan has been slow. According to most estimates, only one- third of the Afghan population has access to television, while all attempts at reforming the state-owned Afghan television have been abandoned. With USAID funding, Arman FM has started Afghanistan's first independent commercial TV channel, Tolo TV, in early October, although its success has yet to be ascertain. The national survey, which dates to 2005, shows that 19 percent of Afghan households own a television, a remarkable total when considering that not only was owning a TV a crime under the Taliban but that a mere 14 percent of the population has access to public electricity.
The government controls National Television Afghanistan (RTA). Three of the most popular television broadcasters are Tolo TV, Aina TV, and Ariana TV. Now there are 10 T.V channels they are: -
Afghan TV
ANTV (Afghanistan National Television)
Ariana Afghanistan Television
Ariana TV Network
Ariana TV Network International
Ayna TV
Lemar TV (private, Pasto)
Shamshad TV
Simaye Quryan
Tolo TV (private channel, Farsi)

Below is list of the channels in Afghanistan with their type of broadcast.
1.RTA--Government2.Tolo--Private--FarsiLanguage3.Lemar--Private--Pashto4.Noorin TV--owned by Panjshiri Businessman-- Farsi5.Noor TV--Owned by Burhanuddin RAbbani--Farsi6.Tamadon--Owned by Asef Mohseni--Farsi7.Farda--owned by Mohaqeq--Farsi8.Imroz--owned by Najibullah Kabuli MP--Mostly Farsi9.Afghan TV--private-- Pashto and Farsi
10.Shamshad TV--owned by Afghan melat--Pashto11. Ariana TV--owned by Bayat--Mix12. New Channel by Khali13. Ayena --owned by Dostum--Farsi, uzbeki, Turkmeni and Pashto

Radio Arman is Afghanistan's first ever privately owned independent FM radio station. . Half of its radio jockeys are women, who co-present the program with men. Afghanistan is still steeped in a radio culture as the majority of the population, particularly in the remote rural regions, depends on radio. Arman FM is the country's most successful commercial pop station.
The government also controls one radio station, Radio Afghanistan. Taliban radio, which was banned after the fall of the regime, began broadcasting again in April 2005. The location of the Taliban's station is unknown.
Radio is the broadcast medium of choice in Afghanistan, an option well suited to a low-literate society, although most people do not have a radio. Radio ownership is limited around 74 per 1,000. The Radio Voice of Sharia (Islamic law), founded in 1927 as Radio Kabul and controlled by the Ministry of Information and Culture, was programmed by the Taliban to provide domestic service up to 10 hours daily in Dari and Pashtu; daily domestic service of 50 minutes in Nurestani, Pashai, Turkmen, and Uzbek; and 30 minutes of foreign service in English and Urdu.
There are now at least 45 FM radio stations in Afghanistan. Some of them are: -

Arman FM 98.1
Radio Afghanistan
Radio Aryana FM 93.5 Kabul Afghanistan
Radio Azadi FM 100.5 Kabul Afghanistan
BBC Radio FM 89.0 Kabul Afghanistan
Radio kILID FM 87.5 Kabul Afghanistan
Radio FM 89.4 Kabul Afghanistan
Radio Zala FM 89.2 Kunar Afghanistan


Since the fall of King Zahir Shah in 1973 and the end of the "decade of democracy", the press has been in the hands of the government. After coming to power in 1978, the Democratic Party introduced a media system based on the Soviet model. About 100 publications, all dependent on state institutions, were scrupulously vetted by the security ministry's "seventh committee", which was in charge of censorship. When the Mujahideen took control in 1992, 90% of publications disappeared, either because they were banned or because they had been stripped of their material resource. In the provinces, a few publications controlled by the local authorities appear irregularly. Their content is meagre, with no photos, illustrations, readers' letters or editorials. All the news printed comes from ministries and the official news agency. Working conditions for journalists are very harsh: they have to take orders from the Taliban representatives assigned to editorial offices, and the state pays little and irregularly. In spite of the troublesome
condition of press and press freedom the Dean of Kabul University insists that journalism course are still taught according to the criteria of international media and professional ethics. Needless to say, the University admits only male students.

Afghani newspapers provide information on local issues, politics, events celebrations, people and business. Controversial and political issues are usually ignored in newspapers. The potential newspaper audience is small because Afghanistan has a literacy rate thought to be among the lowest in Asia that is just 28%, although education is compulsory for children between the ages of 7 and 13.
According to one Afghan journalist in his direct opinion "There are no journalists left in Afghanistan today. They are working as religious officials and are formally forbidden to write anything." Foreign journalists who have been covering Afghanistan since 1996 tell how nervous the military are of still and video cameras, which they call "the Devil's boxes".

Afghanistan adopted a new press law in March 2004. While giving the media a relatively liberal framework in which to develop it also lets the political authorities maintain a degree of control over the press. New newspapers and printers, for example, must get a license from the information ministry. The commissions in charge of regulating the print and broadcasting media are under the government’s thumb. And foreign investment in the media is strictly limited.

The first regularly published Afghani newspaper was the Saraj-al-Akhbar ("Lamp of the News") debuting in 1911 and published in Afghani Persian (Dari), eight years before Afghanistan gained independence on August 19, 1919, from Great Britain. Modern printing machines began operating in Afghanistan in 1927, although the printing standards remain behind the times.
Despite of the instable government and press freedom there are some notable newspapers which have contributed on the development of press in Afghanistan and they are:-

Afghan Daily [In English]
Afghan Online Press [In English]
Bassirat [In French]
Benawa.com (kandhar)
The Daily Afghanistan (Kabul) [In Pashto & Dari]
Daily Outlook Afghanistan (Kabul) [In English]
Kabul Press (Kabul)
My Afghan
Tolafghan [In Pashto & Dari}
Film industry
Cinema entered Afghanistan at the beginning of 20th century. The political changes of Afghanistan has not allowed the cinema of the country to grow over the years. However, numerous Pashto and Persian films have been made both inside and outside Afghanistan throughout the 20th century. Cinema of Afghanistan entered a new phase since 2001. Several Afghan films have attracted international critics and the public.
“Osama"(Dari/Pashtu) is the first full-length feature film to emerge from Afghanistan since the fall of the Taliban regime. It is an attempt to come to terms with the country's history – and it already won a Golden Globe Award.
Apart from Dari cinema, Pashto cinema is also flourishing in Afghanistan. Several Pashto language films have been made since the fall of the Taliban. Also several Pashto films have been made by foreigners like "Good Morning Afghanistan" (2003) by Camilla Nielsson
In the whole of Afghanistan after 1978, there were 26 movie theatres – 18 of them in Kabul. Many of these were lost in the war.
Since 2000, the cinema of Afghanistan has slowly started to emerge from a lengthy period of silence.
Since the establishment of an Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) the rebirth of the Afghan film industry has attracted great international support and it can be said that film is currently the most developed Afghan art form. The films shown are mainly educational in nature, covering such subjects as landmine awareness, healthcare and protection of the nation’s heritage.
Afghanistan has a registered Film Union, which is part of the Artists' Union of Afghanistan. It is now independent from state control, under the leadership of filmmaker Timor Shah Hakimyar. At the time of the Soviets the first Film Union was controlled by the government, who dictated the type of films to be made.
Although there is no formal film school in Afghanistan, the University of Kabul’s Faculty of Fine Arts offers a theatre-training program, which includes acting for the cinema. AÏNA, Afghan Film and Kabul Film also run apprenticeship programs to encourage young filmmakers.

Today's Afghan music can be roughly divided into traditional, modern and post-modern. Boundaries between these different categories are not clear-cut but roughly reflect eras of pre Soviet, intra Soviet and post Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The influences of neighboring cultures are reflected upon Afghan Music. Since Taliban banned Music, most Afghan music during that period was created in exile. Afghan artists continued to produce music especially in the United States and Canada. Afghan music sites all around the world

· Afghansongs.com
· AfghanLyrics.com
· Afghan MP3 Songs
· Afghan HITS.com
· Afghan Music Page etc..

The Bakhtar News Agency, responsible for domestic news collation and distribution to all domestic media, reports to the Ministry of Information and Culture. Leaders in both these units traditionally have been appointed based on their loyalty to the ruling government.
Afghani refugees—the Afghan Islamic Press and the Sahaar News Agency, have launched two Pakistani-based news agencies. They manage to produce bulletins with varying degrees of accuracy for mostly Western wire services.
Because of the dangers to journalists based in Afghanistan, foreign news bureaus have shrunk. By 2001 only three countries were represented by news agencies in Kabul: Czechoslovakia, Russia, and Yugoslavia.
The Afghan government runs one news agency, Bakhtar News Agency. The other two are privately owned: Pajhwok Afghan News Agency and Hindukush News Agency.

By 2002 it appeared that traditional forms of press freedom were simply nonexistent in Afghanistan. Because the ruling movement strictly interpreted Muslim Sharia law and banned representation of people and animals, for example, newspapers were picture-free— censorship in which Afghanistan stands alone in the world. Had newspapers been allowed to print photographs, women would have appeared only in full veil and men in full beard. This suppression of freedom of expression extended to a complete ban on music and films.
Self-censorship also has been a problem because of the threats received by journalists after writing articles critical of the Taliban. Afghan journalists, working both locally and in exile, have been subject to warnings as well as fatwas (death threats) for writing unpopular reports. These threats have sometimes materialized into murder.

Tuesday, November 11, 2008