Thursday, July 14, 2011

Online Assignment.wmv

6-lane road develops cracks


While the discussion about the short lived condition of the country roadway being constructed by different sources within the country is at its top level ,we are now facing the same problem with roadway being constructed by foreigners.

Just two months have passed since the six –lane Tinkune- Suryabinayak road came into full operation, this road which is assumed to be of international level has been found with cracks and potholes.

Technicians, who earlier used to say the road needs no repair for the first five years, are shocked to find crack surfacing at Thimi Chowk and Hanumante bridge. Two small burrows infront of Radhe-radhe have been reconstructed overnight.

The six-lane road, stretching 9.1 km was constructed by Hazama ( a Japanese contract firm). The Tinkune-Suryabinayak stretch of the Arniko Highway was widened under the Kathmandu-Bhaktapur Road Improvement Project with a grant assistance of Rs 2 billion from the government of Japan and Rs 400 million as counterpart fund from Nepal.

Every minute more than 60 vehicles move through this road and though the concerned authority bets that it can hold the speed of vehicles with 80km per hour. The ongoing devastating condition of the road has become the headache of local people.

Whatever the cause of damage, Hazama has decided to repair the damaged sections.The Japanese contractor did its job on time, but the work that the Nepal government was supposed to carry out is yet to be completed. Construction of railings along the road and construction of service tracks left and right the road has not been completed.

Wednesday, June 23, 2010

Ethical Cultural Relativism

Cultural relativism is the form of moral relativism that holds that all ethical truth is relative to a specified culture. According to cultural relativism, it is never true to say simply that a certain kind of behaviour is right or wrong; rather, it can only ever be true that a certain kind of behaviour is right or wrong, relative to a specified society.
The strength of cultural relativism is that allows us to hold fast to our moral intuitions without having to be judgemental about other societies that do not share those intuitions. If we reject cultural relativism then we face a difficulty: if we are to be consistent about our moral beliefs then it seems that we ought to condemn those past societies that have not conformed to our moral code and perhaps even seek to impose our moral code on those present societies that do not already accept it.
On cultural relativism, our moral code applies only to our own society, so there is no pressure on us to hold others to our moral standards at all. On cultural relativism, we can say quite consistently that equality in the workplace is a moral necessity in our society but is inappropriate elsewhere around the globe. In an age where tolerance is increasingly being seen as the most important virtue of all, this can seem to be an attractive position.
This strength of cultural relativism, however, is also its weakness. Cultural relativism excuses us from judging the moral status of other cultures in cases where doing so seems to be inappropriate, but it also renders us powerless to judge the moral status of other cultures in cases where doing so seems to be necessary. Faced with a culture that deems slavery morally acceptable, it seems to be appropriate to judge that society to be morally inferior to our own.
Cultural relativism, as it has been called, challenges our ordinary belief in the objectivity and universality of moral truth. It says, in effect, that there is no such thing as universal truth in ethics; there are only the various cultural codes, and nothing more.
Many thinkers believe that different cultures have different moral codes, thus generating a system of cultural relativism. A good example of such theories can be found in anthropologist Ruth Benedict’s popular book Patterns of Culture (1934). What one believes and does depends simply on where you are, according to Benedict. For example, in Mexico a journalist may well moonlight for a politician in the evenings, and there is nothing unethical about it, whereas in the United States such a practice would be considered unethical. The believer in ethical cultural relativism would claim that there is no objective standard by which we can call one societal code better than another, that different societies or cultures have differing ethical codes, that one’s own moral code has no advantage over others, that there is no universal truth in ethics, and that it is nothing more than arrogance for us to judge the conduct of other peoples. Cultural relativism is closely related to contextual (sometimes called situation) ethics.
Journalism is traditionally practiced through news organizations such as newspapers, broadcasting stations or news web sites. These organizations have their individual modes of operations and cultural expectations, but they are part of a larger culture in which the profession is practiced. Journalists do not work alone. They are part of a larger culture that has its conventions and norms. Journalist must be grounded in matters pertaining to the national interest of societies within his scope of operation.

Sunday, September 13, 2009

Significance of Mass Media Research

Mass media are defind as media which have their proper program and constitute their own audience. Mass media research, accordingly, deals with the production of programs and the consumption of the audience.( Heiner Meulemann and Jörg Hagenah).Mass media research is a part of the communication research. It does scientific study of mass communication media and how people interact with it as individual and as a group. There are some research experts who prefer to term the study as ‘mass communication research’ rather than ‘mass media research’. Research is scientific therefore it is verifiable, objective, empirical, systematic, cumulative and logical. Every area of the mass media uses research. Every time we raise a “who, what, when, where, why, how” question when dealing the mass media, we have developed an investigative question. Research helps provide answer to these questions. Media professionals have to take instant decisions which should be informed ones and therefore, they need to be involved in research. The mass media research may seek answer to such question as to Which types of advertising are most effective in selling products and services? What are the elements of a successful magazine cover page? What type of format a radio news and current affairs should adopt? Why a current TV serial is not performing as well as expected? why do viewers select one television program over another? Which sections of newspaper do people read most often?
And so on. All research, whether formal or informal, begins with a basic question or proposition about a specific phenomenon. These questions can be answered to some degree with well-designed research studies.
Scientific research is an organized, objective, controlled, cumulative, empirical analysis of one or more variables. Science is a particular state of human mind. We all conduct research everyday. We do this whenever we test a question about anything. Children conduct “research studies” to determine which items are hot and which are cold, how to ride a bicycle and which persuasive methods work best with parents. Teenagers “test” ideas about driving, dating, and working, and adults “test” ideas about family, finance, and survival.
C.S.Peirce, discussed four approaches to finding answers , or methods of knowing: tenacity, intuition, authority, and science.
Quality media is the result of very careful and precise research.There is no area of mass media that hasn’t been affected by research. Mass media use researches to verify or refute gut feelings or intuition for decision making. Research finding and recommendations are used to make credible media products for the audience. Research in any field including mass communication, is a collective human endeavor to discover the truth.

R.D. Wimmer and J.R. Dominick; Mass Media Research An Introduction (Seventh edition); Wadsworth, Belmont; CA 3098.
Nirmala Mani Adhikary; Understanding Mass Media Research; Prashanti Pustak Bhandar, Kathmandu; 2006.

Monday, June 22, 2009

Mandev, not the founder of Changu Narayan

Changu Narayan is a pagoda-style Hindu temple dedicated to Vishnuin his incarnation as Narayan. Changu Narayan Temple, one of the most beautiful World Heritage Sites, stands on a hilltop at the eastern end of the valley, about 6km north of Bhaktapur and 22km from Kathmandu. It came in existence in 4th century. In the book “Environment and Population” its written that king Mandev had established the Changu Narayan temple. But people are not aware of the fact that it was not Mandev, it was King Haridutta Burma who actually built the Changu Narayan according to the priest of the temple Chakradharananda Raj Upadhya. Mandev isn’t the one to established the Changu Narayan temple because King Mandev is after the 9th generation of king Haridutta Burma. King Mandev in his manifesto had talked about the land he’s going to give for the establishment of the Changu Narayan temple. Nowhere has he mentioned about the temple been established by him.

Monday, June 8, 2009

Radio Nepal

Radio Nepal was established on 1st April 1951. Radio Nepal airs programmes on Short Wave, Medium Wave and FM frequencies. The short Wave transmission of Radio Nepal is estimated to reach listeners throughout the kingdom. Medium Wave transmission covers 70% to 80% of the population. Radio broadcasting is the cheapest and quickest means of mass communications in Nepal. Radio Nepal recognizes that its primary obligation is to serve its listeners. It has been providing various programs aimed at creating mass awareness in its attempt to reflect the views of all sections of the society. Radio Nepal broadcasts news bulletins in at regular intervals (hourly) from 06:00 hrs until the close of the transmission. In additional to the news in Nepali and English, there are bulletins in other languages at various timings. They are Magar , Gurung, Tamang, Rai Bantawa, Limbu, Newari, Bhojpuri, Hindi, Urdu, Tharu East and Tharu West, Avadhi, Sherpa, Maithili, Sanskrit, Kham Magar and Doteli. The station has designated stringer reporters in more than 50 districts for coverage of news and information.
In its effort to utilize the advances in modern technology and introduce useful changes in its broadcast environment, Radio Nepal has recently launched a project called "Newsroom Computerization Project". The overall concept of the project is to eventually make a paperless newsroom. With the support from UNESCO, Radio Nepal is proud to be among the few radio stations in Asia trying to turn the news system digital. Radio Nepal has its own studios for programme production, music recording, drama recording, talks shows and news broadcasts. A music library at its premises in Singh Durbar has a collection of about 40,000 songs.
The Broadcasting Headquarters at Singha Durbar in Kathmandu has two broadcasting houses consisting of one drama studio, two music studios, one reporting studio, three continuity studios, one news studio and seven programme production studios. One of the music studios is equipped with a 24 track recording facility. This studio is open for hiring purposes for anyone desirous of recording music digitally whether solo track or for albums after payment of studio charges which are very relatively reasonable compared to other private studios.The complex also has one open air live theatre facility for functions and musical performances.
In an attempt to reach interested listeners world wide, Radio Nepal has entered the Internet since April 1997. Radio Nepal has also commenced Online Radio Service since December 2006 .The service on internet broadcasting has continued with joint efforts of Radio Nepal, Worldlink Communication and New IT venture Corporation, Japan.
Radio Nepal faces the challenges of moving with the changing times in the light of the new innovations in broadcast technology. Most of its outdated transmission equipment needs to be replaced or refurbished. In program production, the digitization process has already been started, but a lot needs to be done.

13th Nepal Education and Book Fair

The 13th Nepal Education and Book Fair was held at Bhrikuti Mandap which was organized by Global Exposition and Management Servicing Pvt. Ltd. The event was inaugurated by poet Durga Lal Shrestha. Nepali writers Karna Shakya and Jagdish Ghimire spoke at the ceremony.
The fair started from 15th May till 23rd May, 2009. May 21st ,2009 we the students of media studies visited the 13th book fair at Bhrikuti Mandap. There were around 51 book stalls including the colleges, abroad consultancies, computer institutes etc.
Beside the Book Fair, Nepal Science and Exhibition and Competition also attracted many visitors. But in comparison to the previous book fair, this time there were very less number of visitors.
The fair had course book, novels, childrens' book, biographies, programming books and many more. The stalls had very few numbers of buyers. The stall owner even informed us that they have to think quite hard to put the stall next year.